Horticulture · Others

National trees of Europe countries

Today I would like to present  a list of European national trees, some of them are official and some unofficial.


Country Latin name English name
 Albania Olea europaea olive
 Croatia subspecies of Quercus robur Slavonian oak
 Cyprus Quercus alnifolia Golden oak
 Czech Republic Tilia cordata Small-leaved Lime/Small-leaved Linden
 Denmark Fagus sylvatica European beech
 Denmark Quercus robur Pedunculate oak
 England Quercus Oak
 Estonia Quercus robur Pedunculate Oak
 Finland Betula pendula Silver Birch
 Germany Quercus oak
 Greece Olea europaea Olive
 Ireland Quercus petraea Sessile Oak
 Italy Olea europaea Olive
 Latvia Quercus robur Pedunculate oak
 Latvia Tilia cordata lime tree
 Lithuania Quercus oak
 Macedonia Pinus peuce Macedonian pine
 Malta Tetraclinis articulata għargħar
 Moldova Quercus Oak
 Netherlands Ulmus elm
 Norway Picea abies Norway spruce
 Poland Quercus oak
 Portugal Quercus suber Cork oak
 Romania Quercus oak
 Russia Betula pendula Silver Birch
 Serbia Picea omorika Serbian Spruce
 Serbia Quercus Oak
 Slovakia Tilia cordata Small-leaved Lime/Small-leaved Linden
 Slovenia Tilia Linden
 Spain Quercus Ilex evergreen oak
 Sweden Betula pendula ‘Dalecarlica’ Ornäs Birch
 Ukraine Salix willow



As we can see, the most popular species is oak, following by linden, olive tree and birch.




It is obviously not a surprise, that oak is at first position on this list. For centuries, it presents power, strength, wisdom, truth and courage.

Latin name English name %
Quercus oak 47 %
Tilia linden 13 %
Betula birch 9 %
Olea olive 9 %
Picea spruce 9 %
Fagus beech 3 %
Salix willow 3 %
Tetraclinis għargħar 3 %
Ulmus elm 3 %




Quercus – oak oak

in some countries only general genus, but in case of others  it is detailed as Quercus robur (Common Oak, Pendunculate Oak or known also as English oak).

A tree with an impressive tree crown and oval lobed leaves. The fruit is an acorn, brown when mature. Long living, typical life period is about 400-500 years, but can grow up to 1000 years.

Practical application

Wood is heavy and durable, used for underwater constructions, building of railway wagons, furniture industry, wheelwrighting, cooperage, in chemical industry to obtain charcoal, as well as tannins processed from bark and wood.

Acorns, reach in proteins, are used as food for animals and for the production of coffee surrogate.

The bark and sometimes leaves, fruits and growths on leaves (called galls) are used in herbal medicine. They have mainly:

  • anti-diarrhoeal
  • disinfecting
  • anti-bacterial
  • anti-bleed action.

Quercus suber L. Cork oak (symbol of Portugal) is cultivated mainly for its cork tissue (cork cambium layer), developing under the proper bark.




Tilia – linden  tilia

Long living trees with branchy crown providing a lot of cool shade in the summer. Trunk usually with suckers. Heart-shaped asymmetrical leaves, valuable melliferous flowers.

Practical application

Wood is soft and easily worked and used commonly for model building and carving as well as for the construction of music instruments. It is also used for production of charcoal.

Flowers (usually applied in the form of a brew) have:

  • diuretic
  • sedative
  • antispastic
  • antifebrile  action.




Betula pendula Roth. (earlier Betula verrucosa Ehrh.)     birch1

Common Birch (known also as Silver Birch, European Birch, European White Birch)

Very distinguished tree with delicate structure and typical white bark. Leaves rhomboid-oval, flowers in April and May, fruits in August.

Typical for whole Europe except Spain and Balkans, as well as for Asia from Altai Mountains to Western Siberia. Popular in forests, on the outskirts of fields and along roads.

Practical application

Wood – furniture industry, wheelwrighting, charcoal, after chemical treatment (dry distillation) of wood, roots and bark can be obtained various useful products like tars or oils. Bark is used for different type of common products for everyday use like boxes or baskets or even is used for roofs of buildings (in the North).

Leaves, bugs and chaga growth obtained from birch are used commonly in herbal medicine.

Leaves and bug (usually applied in the form of a brew) have:

  •  anti-bacterial
  • diuretic
  • diaphoretic
  • metabolism strengthening action.

Chaga (Inonotus obliquus) is a type of fungus growing in a symbiotic relationship with the birches on which they grow.  Sometime is mistaken with a polypore.  It outgrowths the trunk of the tree, often strengthening it.

The extract from chaga has strengthening and anti-inflammatory actions.



Olea europaea L. (also Olea officinarum Crantz) – Olive tree  olive

Small tree up to 10(20) m or a shrubs, leaves dark green, lanceolate, stone fruits in shape of a plum, but smaller. It is a long living species (200-300 years, but can even up to 1000 years), in Europe typical for the whole area of Mediterranean Sea.

Practical application

It is cultivated mainly for fresh and processed fruits as well as for oil obtained from fruits.

Oil obtained from fruits by pressing, used as food but also in cosmetics and pharmacology. Worst types of olive are used as grease and fuel.

Olive wood is very durable, used in furniture industry.

It is one of longest cultivated species, already common since times of Ancient Egypt.





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