City greenery · Sustainability

Implementation of Howard’s idea of garden city


In my last article I have written about Howard’s idea of a garden city. It hasn’t finished on the theoretical idea but there were (and are) quite many attempts to realize Howard’s ideas in practice. The most famous ones were:

Letchworth, projected by Raymond Unwin and Barry Parker in England near London. The construction works started in 1903 and it was the first attempt to put in practice the idea of the garden city. The layout of this city was not based on circles but tried to implement the general idea of such type of areas.

Welwyn – projected by Louis de Soisons in 1919 in England near London. It developed slower than originally planned but in the contrary to Letchworth, it reached better economical results.

Both these cities were based on the cooperative ownership.

The idea of the garden city was also implemented not as the whole city but as only a distinguished district of already existing cities. Hampstead Garden Suburb was an example of such implementation.  It was realized since 1907 and located near London.

There were also attempts to introduce the Howard’s idea outside Great Britain. German example of a garden city is Hellerau near Dresden. In Finland, Tapiola was created based on Howard’s principles.

There were also attempts to create garden cities outside Europe, in such countries like Argentina, Australia, Bhutan, Brazil, India, Israel, Morocco, Philippines, South Africa or  Vietnam.



  1. Majdecki L., 2016. History of gardens
  2. Słodczyk J., 2012. History of planning and building of cities




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